WAR &

PEACE

SOC802 Ryerson University  Issues in War and Peace  Peter Wronski
LECTURE 9
: The Law and Sociology of Total War and Genocide


 Nuremberg Military Tribunal Charges

1. Crimes Against Peace
2. War Crimes
3. Crimes Against Humanity
4. Conspiracy to commit the above

Raul Hilberg,
The Destruction of the European Jews, (3 volumes)
New York:  Holmes & Meier, 1985.

"genocide"

Nuremberg Trials 1946-1949

United Nations Charter,
San Francisco Conference,
April 1945

Laws of Warfare

Geneva Convention - Hague Convention
Treatment of P.O.W,s
Treatment of civilians
Prohibited weapons and munitions
causing "excessive" pain or suffering
International Court of Justice
War Crimes Tribunals

Rules of warfare
collateral damage to civilians

 "proportionality"

Trial of the Major War Criminals 
International Military Tribunal, (Nuremberg, 14 November 1945 - 1 October 1946)

Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946 (Blue Series)  

Trials of the War Criminals 
Nuremberg Military Tribunal (under Control Council Law No. 10)
(
Nuremberg October 1946 - April 1949)
Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950   (Green Series)

Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression
Office of the United States Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946 (Red Series)

Explaining the Killers

Perpetration Induced Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
(Perpetration Induced PTSD)

"flashback syndrome"

education, indoctrination, propaganda, schooling
war guilt
war rage
legality
depravity
sociopathy-psychopathy
racism
national security prerogative
antisemitism
Eugenic theory
careerism
bureaucratic imperative
the division of killing labour
distancing from the "other"

Adolf Eichmann: "the banality of evil.
Hannah Arndt 

"I was only following orders."
"I was only doing my job."

John Dower  – War Without Mercy:  Race and Power in the Pacific War  -- “war hates” induce “war crimes”

dehumanization of the 'other' 

US troops in Philippines, Pacific, Vietnam, Iraq

Theodor Adorno -- "The Authoritarian Personality Type" -- "F-scale"

John Steiner
genocidal "sleepers"

Ervin Staub  “Evil that arises out of ordinary thinking and is committed by ordinary people is the norm, not the exception.”

Zygmunt Bauman
"People slip into the roles that society provides them with."


Stanley Milgram
Obedience to Authority Experiments
Yale University 1961-1962

Philip Zimbardo
'The Lucifer Effect' Experiment
Stanford University 1971
 




 

 

 


 

 

Five major preconditions would probably be essential in producing a movement similar to National Socialism:  

1.      The existence of a hybrid society, half-feudal and half-industrial with long-standing militaristic and authoritarian traditions.

2.      The nationalization of the masses as an instrument of social control and international aggression.

3.      The respectability of biological-racial beliefs.

4.      The traumatic effect of extreme stress caused by military defeat and economic ruin.

5.      The convergence of sociopathic personalities and xenophobic movements.  

Klaus P. Fischer, Nazi Germany:  A New History,  (New York:  Continuum, 1995.)   p. 19

Theodor Adorno -- "The Authoritarian Personality Type" -- "F-scale"

    • rigid adherence to conventional values
    • submissiveness to authority figures
    • aggressiveness toward out groups
    • opposition to introspection, reflection and creativity
    • reoccupation with power and “toughness”
    • destructiveness and cynicism
    • projectivity – a disposition to believe that dangerous conspiratorial things go on in the world
    • an exaggerated concern with sexuality

  • Zygmunt Bauman very critical of Adorno, because the 'f-scale' suggested that "ordinary" people did not commit Nazi atrocities; that Adorno's theory is like arguing:  “Nazism was cruel because Nazis were cruel; and Nazis were cruel because cruel people tended to become Nazis.” 

RECOMMENDED LINKS:

Military Legal Resources (Including Nuremberg Trial Transcripts)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/military-legal-resources-home.html

Doctor's Trials and I.G. Farben Trial Downloads Link
http://www.profit-over-life.org/guide/index.html

Jean-Claude Pressac, Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers, New York:  Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1989.
availaible online:  
http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0011.htm 
[Definitive source on gas chambers.]

Michael Tregenza, , The 'Disappearance' of SS-Hauptscharfuhrer Lorenz Hackenholt: A Report on the 1959-63 West German Police Search for Lorenz Hackenholt the Gas Chamber Expert of the Aktion Reinhard Extermination Camps, http://www.mazal.org/archive/documents/Tregenza/Tregenza01.htm, 

Document 4024-PS -- Lists of Plunder From
Aktion Reinhard victims
http://www.deathcamps.org/reinhard/arloot.htm

RECOMMENDED SOURCES/READINGS

MEDICAL KILLING /EUGENINCS/ RACIAL WAR

McFarland-Icke, Bronwyn Rebekah, Nurses in Nazi Germany: Moral Choice
in History, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Weindling, Paul Julian , Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials : From
Medical War Crimes to Informed Consent, New York: Palgrave Macmillan,
2005.

Nicosia, Francis R. , Medicine and Medical Ethics in Nazi Germany:
Origins, Practice, Legacies, New York: Berghahn Books, 2002.

Annas, George J. , Michael A. Grodin, Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg
Code : Human Rights in Human Experimentation, New York: Oxford
University Press, 1995.

Aly, Götz; Chroust, Peter; and Pross, Christian., Cleansing the
Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene, Baltimore and London:
John Hopkins University Press, 1994.

Astor, Gerald, The “Last” Nazi: The Life and Times of Dr. Joseph
Mengele, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1985.

Burman, Paul W., The First German War Crimes Trial: Chief Judge
Walter B. Beals’ Desk Notebook of the Doctors’ Trial Held in
Nuernberg, Germany, December, 1945 to August, 1947, Chapel Hill, NC:
Documentary Publications, 1985.

Baumslag, Naomi, Murderous medicine : Nazi doctors, human
experimentation, and Typhus, Praeger Publishers, 2005.

Burleigh, Michael, Death and Deliverance: ‘Euthanasia’ in Germany 1900-
1945, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Frankfurter, Bernhard, (Ed), The Meeting: An Aushwitz Survivor
Confronts and SS Physician, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2000.

Friedlander, Henry, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthenasia to The Final Solution, University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill and London, 1995.

Glass, James M., Life Unworthy of Life: Racial Phobia and Mass Murder in Hitler’s Germany, Basic Books: New York, 1997.

Hoedeman, Paul, Hitler or Hippocrates: Medical experiments and
euthanasia in the Third Reich, Sussex: Book Guild, 1991.

International Auschwitz Committee, Nazi Medicine: Doctors, Victims,
and Medicine in Auschwitz, New York: Howard Fertig, 1986.

Kater, Michael, Doctors Under Hitler, Chapel Hill, NC: University of
North Carolina Press, 1989.

Lifton, Jay, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of
Genocide, New York: Basic Books, 1986.

McFarland-Icke, Bronwyn Rebekah, Nurses in Nazi Germany: Moral Choice
in History, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Proctor, Robert N., Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis,
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Spitz, Vivien, Doctors From Hell : the horrific account of Nazi
experiments on humans, Sentient Publications, 2005.

Weyers, Wolfgang, The Death of Medicine in Nazi Germany: Dermatology
and Dermatopathology Under the Swastika, Philadelphia: Ardor
Scrbendi, 1998.

NAZI GENOCIDAL KILLING - TOTAL WAR

Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, New York: Holmes & Meier, 1985. ( 3 volumes )

Gotz Aly and Karl Neinz Roth,
The Nazi Census:  Identification and Control in The Third Reich, Philadelphia:  Temple University Press, 2004.

Saul Friedlander,
Nazi German and the Jews Volume 1:  The Years of Persecution, 1933-1939, New York:  Harper Collins, 1997

Marion A Kaplan,
Between Dignity and Despair:  Jewish Life in Nazi Germany, New York:  Oxford University Press, 1998

Isaiah Trunk, 
Judenrat:  The Jewish Councils in Eastern Europe Under Nazi Occupation, New York:  Stein and Day, 1972.

Christopher R. Browning, “Beyond ‘Intentionalism’ and ‘Functionalism’: A Reassessment of Nazi Jewish Policy from 1939 to 1941” in Thomas Childers and Jane Caplan (eds),
Reevaluating the Third Reich, New York:  Holmes & Meirer, 1993.

Christopher R.  Browning,
The Origins of the Final Solution:  The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942,
(Lincoln/Jerusalem:  University of Nebraska Press
/ Yad Vashem, 2004.

Yaacov Lozowick,
Hitler's Bureaucrats:  The Nazi Security Police and the Banality of Evil,  New York/London:  Continuum, 2000.

Richard Rhodes,
Masters of Death:  The SS Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust, New York:  Knopf, 2002.

Ronald Headland, 
"The Eisatsgruppen:  The Question of Their Initial Operations",  Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp 401-412, 1989.

Yitzhak Arad, Shmuel Krakowski and Shmuel Spector (eds) 
The Einsatzgruppen Reports:  Selections from the Dispatches of the Nazi Death Squads, New York:  Holocaust Library, 1989.

Yehoshua Buchler,
"Kommandostab Reichsfuhrer-SS: Himmler's Personal Murder Brigades in 1941", Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 11-25, 1986.

Yitzhak Arad,
Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka:  The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Bloomigton and Indianapolis:  Indiana University Press, 1987.

Richard Breitman,
The Architect of Genocide:  Himmler and the Final Solution, New York:  Knopf, 1991.

Shmuel Spector, "
Aktion 1005 -- Effacing the Murder of Million, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp 157-173, 1990.

Ernst Klee, 
‘Those Were the Days’: The Holocaust As Seen by the Perpetrators and Bystanders, London:  Hamish Hamilton, 1993.

Eugen Kogan, Hermann Langbein and Adelbert Rückerl ,
Nazi Mass Murder:  A Documentary History of the Use of Poison Gas, New Haven and London:  Yale University Press, 1993.

 
French MacLean, The Camp Men:  The SS Officers Who Ran the Nazi Concentration Camp System, Atglen, PA:  Schiffer Military History, 1999.

French MacLean,
The Field Men:  The SS Officers Who Led the Einsatzkommandos – the Nazi Mobile Killing Units, Atgelen, PA:  Schiffer Military History, 1999.

Jean-Claude Pressac, Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers, New York:  Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1989.
availaible online:  
http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0011.htm  [Definitive source on gas chambers.]

Michael Tregenza, , The 'Disappearance' of SS-Hauptscharfuhrer Lorenz Hackenholt: A Report on the 1959-63 West German Police Search for Lorenz Hackenholt the Gas Chamber Expert of the Aktion Reinhard Extermination Camps, http://www.mazal.org/archive/documents/Tregenza/Tregenza01.htm

Document 4024-PS -- Lists of Plunder From
Aktion Reinhard victims
http://www.deathcamps.org/reinhard/arloot.htm