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LECTURE  4:

The Seizure of Power

  • Keppler Circle

  • Dr. Horace Greely Hjalmar Schacht (1877 – 1970)

  • Baron Kurt Freiherr von Schröder

  • Sullivan & Cromwell Limited Liability Partners

  • Allen Welsh Dulles

  • John Foster Dulles   LINK:  Dulles & IG Farben - BIS Board

  • Hermann Schmitz

  • IG Farben       Link to IG Farben Trial Transcripts

  • Bank of International Settlements (BIS)

  • Walther Funk

  • Reichsbank

  • January 4, 1933 Hitler-Papen Meeting

  • January 15 election in Lippe

  • Alfred Hugenberg / DNVP
         

  • January 30, 1933

  • Wilhelm Frick (1877 –1946)

  • Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering) 1893–1946

Cabinet January 30, 1933

Adolf Hitler (NSDAP) - Chancellor 
Franz von Papen - Vice Chancellor 
Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath - Minister of Foreign Affairs 
Wilhelm Frick (NSDAP) - Minister of the Interior 
Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk - Minister of Finance 
Alfred Hugenberg (DNVP) - Minister of Economics and Food 
Franz Seldte - Minister of Labour 
Franz Gürtner (DNVP) - Minister of Justice 
Werner von Blomberg - Minister of Defence 
Paul Freiherr Eltz von Rübenach - Minister of Posts and Transport 
Hermann Göring (NSDAP) - Minister without Portfolio

 

  • The "National Revolution"  (Jan-March 1933) ( The “Legal Revolution”)


  • Decree for the Protection of the German People (Feb 4, 1933)

  • Schutzhaft - "protective custody"

  • Gestapo --  Geheime Staatspolizei

  • Rudolf Diels (1900 - 1957)

  • The Reichstag Fire
     

  • Decree for the Protection of the People and State 
    (Reichstag Fire Decree, February 28)
     

  • Hilfspolizei  
     

 

March 5, 1933 Election

  • Nazis:                                          17.2 million votes – 44 percent

  • Communists                                 4.8 million votes

  • Social Democrats (SPD)                7.1 million – second largest party

  • Nationalist (Nazi partners)              3.1 million

Nazi 288 + 52 nationalist seats = 340 seats out of 647 – enough for a majority to govern
but not enough for the two-thirds needed to amend the constitution.

  • Dachau KL

  • "wild" camps

Protective custody arrest statistics for Prussia

DATE                  DISTRICTS REPORTING    ARRESTS
1-15 March           24/34                    7,784
16-31 March         16/34                    2,860
1-15 April              20/34                   3,017
16-30 April 1           9/34                   2,693

Total (Approximately  60%)              16,354


Law for the Removal of the Distress of People and Reich
(The Enabling Act, 23 March 1933)

  • Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli  (Pope Pius XII)

  • Reichskonkordat (concordat)



  • The Gleichschaltung – “Coordination”  (April-December 1933)

  • Law on Industry Representation and Economic Associations (4 April 1933)

  • National Labour Front

  • Law for the Re-establishment of the Professional Civil Service (7 April 1933)  

     

  • Law against the Establishment of Parties (14 July 1933)

     

  • Law for Securing the Unity of the Party and State (1 December 1933)

  • Ernst Röhm

  • Operation Hummingbird (Night of the Long Knives, 30 June 1934)

  • Law Regarding Measures of State Self-Defense (July 3, 1934)

     

  • Death of von Hindenburg (August 1934)

  • First they came for the communists,
    and I did not speak up,
    for I was not a communist.

    Then they came for the social democrats,
    and I did not speak up,
    for I was not a social democrat.

    Then they came for the trade unionists,
    and I did not speak up,
    for I was not a trade unionist.

    Then they came for the Jews,
    I did not speak up,
    for I was not a Jew.

    And then when they came for me,
    there was no one left to speak out for me.

    •  Pastor Martin Niemöller

     

 

FURTHER READINGS:

Henry Ashby Turner, Jr.  German Big Business & The Rise of Hitler

Max Wallace, The American Axis:  Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh and the Rise of the Third Reich

James Pool, Who Financed Hitler 1919-1933 

James Pool,  Hitler and His Secret Partners 1933-1945

Ian Kershaw, Hitler: 1889-1936 Hubris

George C. Browder, Foundations of the Nazi Police State:  The Formation of the Sipo and SD

Peter Hayes, Industry and Ideology:  IG Farben in the Nazi Era

Joseph Borkin, The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben

Harold James, The Nazi Dictatorship and the Deutsche Bank

Richard Overy, Goering

Ingo Muller, Hitler's Justice:  The Courts of the Third Reich

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