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LECTURE 11    

The Final Solution Part 1:  The Decision to Kill & Aktion Reinhardt

  • National Census (1933 & 1939)

  • Reich Office of Statistics

  • punchcards

  • Hollerith Machine -  Deutsche Hollerrith Machine Gesellschaft (Dehomag) 

  • Reich Registration Order of January 6, 1938

  • Volkskartei  ("people's registry")

  • arbeitsbuch work book

  • Required middle names:  Sara and Israel

    Nazis invented new names for Jews to use:  

    • For males:  Faleg, Feibisch, Feisel, Feitelm Feiwel;  
    • for females:  Scharne, Schneidel, Scheine, Schewa, Schlamche, Semche, Slowe, and Sprinzi.


  •  Decree of September 1, 1941  ("Star" Decree)



  • Hans Frank (1900-1946)

    • Governor-General of the Government General (1939-1945)
      (Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete  (General Government for Occupied Polish Territory)

  • Arthur Greiser  (1887-1946)

    • Reichsstatthalter of Wartheland Gau  (like a Gauleiter)

  • Madagascar Plan

  • kommisarbefehl (Commissar Order)

  • Einsatzgruppen (einsatzkommando)



  • intentionalism  vs  functionalism

  • moderate intentionalism  vs  ultrafunctionalism

  • Christopher Browning and genocidal consensus:
    • anti-Bolshevik grafting
    • Eugenics model
    • Bureaucratic-technocratic impulse


     

  • Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski

  • carbon monoxide gas

  • gas vans

  • Łódź, Warsaw, Minsk, Kovno, Riga, Vilna

  • concentration camp vs annihilation camp (extermination camps) 

  • Chelmno

  • Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka

  • Trawniki Camp  Hilfswillige ("Hiwis")  Auxiliary Volunteers

  • Aktion Reinhardt (Aktion Reinhard)

  • "Reinhard[t] Camps"

  • Wannsee Conference  20 January 1942

  • German Railways Reichsbahn

  • Christian Wirth (The "Savage Christian")

  • Kurt Franz

     

  • Lorenz Hackenholt

  • Willi Metz

  • Hackenholt Institute

  • Paul Blobel - Aktion 1005 -- Sonderkommando 1005

  • Walther Emanuel Funk ( 1890 -1960)
      
  • Reichsbank

  • Trieste riseria

  • LINK:  HIMMLER'S SPEECH AT POZNAN (POSEN)







FURTHER READINGS and SOURCES


  • Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, New York: Holmes & Meier, 1985. ( 3 volumes )

  • Gotz Aly and Karl Neinz Roth, The Nazi Census:  Identification and Control in The Third Reich, Philadelphia:  Temple University Press, 2004.

  • Saul Friedlander, Nazi German and the Jews Volume 1:  The Years of Persecution, 1933-1939, New York:  Harper Collins, 1997

  • Marion A Kaplan, Between Dignity and Despair:  Jewish Life in Nazi Germany, New York:  Oxford University Press, 1998

  • Isaiah Trunk,  Judenrat:  The Jewish Councils in Eastern Europe Under Nazi Occupation, New York:  Stein and Day, 1972.

  • Christopher R. Browning, “Beyond ‘Intentionalism’ and ‘Functionalism’: A Reassessment of Nazi Jewish Policy from 1939 to 1941” in Thomas Childers and Jane Caplan (eds), Reevaluating the Third Reich, New York:  Holmes & Meirer, 1993.

  • Christopher R.  Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution:  The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942,
    (Lincoln/Jerusalem:  University of Nebraska Press
    / Yad Vashem, 2004.

  • Yaacov Lozowick, Hitler's Bureaucrats:  The Nazi Security Police and the Banality of Evil,  New York/London:  Continuum, 2000.

  • Richard Rhodes, Masters of Death:  The SS Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust, New York:  Knopf, 2002.

  • Ronald Headland,  "The Eisatsgruppen:  The Question of Their Initial Operations",  Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp 401-412, 1989.

  • Yitzhak Arad, Shmuel Krakowski and Shmuel Spector (eds)  The Einsatzgruppen Reports:  Selections from the Dispatches of the Nazi Death Squads, New York:  Holocaust Library, 1989.

  • Yehoshua Buchler, "Kommandostab Reichsfuhrer-SS: Himmler's Personal Murder Brigades in 1941", Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 11-25, 1986.

  • Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka:  The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Bloomigton and Indianapolis:  Indiana University Press, 1987.

  • Richard Breitman, The Architect of Genocide:  Himmler and the Final Solution, New York:  Knopf, 1991.

  • Shmuel Spector, "Aktion 1005 -- Effacing the Murder of Million, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp 157-173, 1990.

  • Ernst Klee,  ‘Those Were the Days’: The Holocaust As Seen by the Perpetrators and Bystanders, London:  Hamish Hamilton, 1993.

  • Eugen Kogan, Hermann Langbein and Adelbert Rückerl , Nazi Mass Murder:  A Documentary History of the Use of Poison Gas, New Haven and London:  Yale University Press, 1993.

     

  • French MacLean, The Camp Men:  The SS Officers Who Ran the Nazi Concentration Camp System, Atglen, PA:  Schiffer Military History, 1999.

  • French MacLean, The Field Men:  The SS Officers Who Led the Einsatzkommandos – the Nazi Mobile Killing Units, Atgelen, PA:  Schiffer Military History, 1999.

      

  • Jean-Claude Pressac, Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers, New York:  Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1989.
    availaible online:   http://www.mazal.org/Pressac/Pressac0011.htm  [Definitive source on gas chambers.]

  • Michael Tregenza, , The 'Disappearance' of SS-Hauptscharfuhrer Lorenz Hackenholt: A Report on the 1959-63 West German Police Search for Lorenz Hackenholt the Gas Chamber Expert of the Aktion Reinhard Extermination Camps, http://www.mazal.org/archive/documents/Tregenza/Tregenza01.htm, 2000

  • Document 4024-PS -- Lists of Plunder From Aktion Reinhard victims
    http://www.deathcamps.org/reinhard/arloot.htm

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