Lecture 8 Key Terms  

Civil War (1861-1862)
Battlefield Technology, Rising Casualties, Strategy & Tactics

escalating casualties

"future lag"

muzzle-loading smoothbore musket

musket ball ("round")

matchlock - wheel-lock - flintlock

percussion lock

cartridge ammunition

effective range

Average Hit Rate  [US Ordinance Tests 1855]

Range                      Smooth Bore         Rifle
100 yards:                80%                     100%
200 yards:                65%                       80%
300 yards:                18%                       40%

Springfield .58 caliber rifle
( "rifled muzzle-loading percussion musket")

rifled barrels

close-order formation

Winfield Scott Infantry Tactics (1835)

pace = 28-inches
common time -  90 pace/min
quick time -     110 paces/min
double time -   140 paces/min

William J. Hardee Rifle & Infantry Tactics (1855)

double-quick time - 165 paces/min (up to 180)
pace = 33-inches

Claude-…tienne Miniť

Miniť Ball

"mushrooming"

Hague Declaration Concerning Expanding Bullets of 29 July 1899
Link to Text

Art. 23e of the Annex to Hague Convention IV Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land of 18 October 1907
Link to Text

field hospitals

general hospitals

amputation

chloroform / ether

resection

miasma

anteseptics

Dr. Ignaz Phillip Semmelweis

Dr. Robert Koch

Koch's Postulates (1884)

breastworks

grape shot / canister shot

Spencer Repeating Carbine

Battle of Leuthen  (1757)

oblique order / denied flank

destroying the enemy "in detail"