HST 500 MODERN  INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1945-2001- Course Outline -  Fall 2010 - Ryerson University  

INSTRUCTOR:                    Peter Wronski
  (Peter Vronsky)

INSTRUCTOR OFFICE:    JOR 501 (Tuesday 12:00-13:00 & Friday 3:00-4:00 or by appointment)                

INSTRUCTOR PHONE:    (416) 979-5000 x.6058                      

INSTRUCTOR E-MAIL:    pwronsky@ryerson.ca  [best way to contact]                                  

COURSE WEBSITE:          http://www.petervronsky.com/modernir.htm or http://www.russianbooks.org/modernir.htm    

LECTURES:                         Section 1:  Tues 10:00 - 12:00  in SHE662

                                                                 Thur  11:00 - 12:00  in KHE125

                                               Section 2:  Thur 12:00 -   2:00  in  VIC303
                                               Section 4:  Fri      4:00 -   5:00  in POD484          



What forces created the world of today?  At a time when the world is rapidly changing and becoming increasingly interdependent, it is extremely important to understand the international environment in which our nations and cultures exist.  The main goals of this course is to provide students with the necessary framework to: 1. Make sense of the contemporary global order;  2. To examine a country or issue in its contemporary setting and to establish a historical framework for it;  3.  To improve your ability to think critically and to analyze historical data and evidence by undertaking the kind of research required for an upper level university essay, professional corporate, media or government report, risk assessment, policy analysis or other document; 4.To write clearly and effectively.  


Since it is impossible to understand the world of today without understanding the past, we will look at major factors that have shaped the world since the end of the Second World War in 1945.  The central focus is the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States: its origins, its evolution, and its effects on the international order. The course examines events and issues like, postwar reconstruction, the different fates of Eastern and Western Europe, war and revolution in Asia, conflict in the Middle East, the Berlin Wall, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and many more. Within this framework we will also study numerous personalities such as Josef Stalin, John Kennedy, Nikita Khrushchev, Ho Chi Minh, Mao Zedong, Fidel Castro, and others. The course finishes with the end of the Cold War, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the world that has emerged up to 2001. We will also discuss international relations today, considering numerous contemporary crises including the so-called “war on terror”, the rise of radical Islam, and a revisionist Russia.
Please Note: Students who take this course MAY NOT take HST 604 or CHST604 for a liberal studies credit.


Other Course Objectives


1) To help understand the international environment.

2) To show how to use history to explain a current situation and project a future scenario's and possible outcomes.

3) To show how to find and use different sources of information.

4) To demonstrate tools with which to analyze and understand the relationship of chronological events to a given issue, problem or objective.

5) To introduce a system of evidence with which to discern fact from rumour, news from propaganda, history from mythology.


TEXTS (available at the Ryerson book store)

William R. Keylor, A World of Nations: The International Order Since 1945 [second edition] (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009)


Proposal                                   In first lecture week of Sept 13
Midterm test:                10%    In one-hour lecture week of Oct 11
Essay (2500 words):   25%    In first Lecture week of Nov 22
Log                                25%    December 2 [in JOR501 10-11 AM & 2:00-3:00 PM]
Final Exam:                  25%    TBA
Seminars:                     15%    TBA


METHOD OF INSTRUCTION:     Lecture & Seminar


Note:  It is your responsibility to 'ration' the text book readings over the semester.  Do not wait for lectures to 'catch-up' with the text book -- read ahead of the lectures cover to cover.  The final exam will be based on lecture, textbook readings, seminar readings and discussions.


Tentative Lecture Schedule
(see website for weekly updated lecture content)

·         Roots of the Cold War / the Cold War begins (preface & ch.1) 

·         Cold War 1950s (ch.2)

·         Korea & Indochina 1950-1970 (ch.7 & 8)          

·         Détente 1960-1970s (ch.3)

·         The new Cold War of the 1980s and Soviet Collapse (ch 4)

·         Latin America (ch. 6)

·         Middle-East (ch. 9)

·         Africa (ch. 10)

·         Europe (ch. 5)  

·         Globalization  (Epilogue)




Three one-hour seminars will be held in the semester based on lecture material and assigned readings: dates and readings TBA on the website.  Attendance is mandatory.  Seminar mark is 15% of the final grade and based on attendance and quality and degree of participation.



(Please read carefully and take note that Part Three described below begins immediately.


There are three parts to your assignment: 1. proposal; 2. essay;  3. log-report.  


The essay will be a historical examination of whatever topic you pick from (roughly) 1945 to the pre-9/11 period. The log-report will be a contemporary study of the same topic. You will use a past history (1945-2001) described in your essay and link it to a more recent present of the next twelve weeks which you will document in your log.  You do not have to connect the two directly but the essay should be a relevant “backgrounder” to the log. Each is an independent assignment. However, by studying the past history of say Afghanistan, one can understand far better what is going on there today.  The essay covers only the historical: in this case the period between 1945 and 2001 (approximately). The log covers only the contemporary:  just the 12 weeks of your winter semester 2010.


First, you must carefully pick a topic today. (See suggested list further below.) Choose something that interests you – there is nothing worse than studying something that you have absolutely no interest in. If you are struggling with the choice, or want some help picking a topic, please feel free to contact me. Do not worry about which may be “harder” or “easier.” All topics have their own unique dimensions that make it impossible to gauge such things. Do not think you need some really important academic or professional reason to select a topic either. Pick something that interests you. Perhaps it is a country from which your family comes, a place you always wanted to visit, or simply somewhere or something you chose randomly. Just keep in mind that the choice of your topic MUST be made immediately as you can see from instructions below. Not all topics will lend themselves well to this historical/contemporary division. For example, global warming was not much of an issue until recently and did not come up much in the Cold War.  Similarly, some countries, like Czech Republic, Croatia, or Ukraine, did not exist as such during the historical period but perhaps their nationalist movements did. Nonetheless, a historical component and dimension is important. I am always interested in new ideas for topics, so feel free to offer one up.


Whatever topic you choose will be the focus of ALL THREE COMPONENTS of your written work. The objective will be to examine your topic from the historical AND the contemporary perspectives.


Please note that ALL parts of the assignment must be completed before a full grade will be given. You MUST do both the essay and the log – no partial marks will be given if one of the parts is not completed.


Provide a one-two page outline (in duplicate) on the topic and how you will be approaching it for the other parts of the assignment. List any theses, propositions, or arguments you might deal with in the essay. List sources that you might be consulting for both essay and log.


The objective of this part of the assignment is simply to get constructive feedback for you, which will hopefully help with the other parts of the work. The outline will also serve to announce to me what your topic is so that I can follow events in the country/issue you choose over term as well. I keep track of every chosen topic during the term. The outline will not be marked, but given the weight on your essay and log you should put some thought into this. This is strictly for your benefit, so the more detail you offer the more I can give feedback if appropriate. Please note that to ensure we both understand the nature and scope of your topic, the outline must be submitted immediately.  The deadline for this outline is your first lecture day in the week of September 13. Failure to turn in an outline by the due date will result in an automatic 5% penalty against both your essay and your log and 2% per every subsequent late day.  


The outline is to be submitted in duplicate.  I will return one copy to you with an "OK" comments if any.  Save and attach this copy to with you Log when submitting it at the end of the semester.


Keep in mind too that ALL topics must be approved by me even if you do not submit an outline. If you turn in something without having cleared it with me in writing first, it will receive a grade of ZERO with no appeal. If for some reason you have not submitted an outline by the deadline you can still come see me anytime to clear a topic. I keep a master list of what everyone is doing so you must come speak with me.  Also, please note that regardless of what kind of outline you submit you are free to come see me for help at any time during term.



Provide a clear and comprehensive background essay on your topic, covering 1945 - 2001.  Each topic will vary, but the idea is to stick within the 1945-2001 timeframe as best as possible. Of course some countries or events will necessitate going beyond these dates, or may not include that entire 1945-2001 time span.  Do not attempt a general history “since the beginning of time”.  You should be very clear on what timeline and events you intend to cover. Provide the necessary background to your topic, discuss key events and people, and assess how your topic impacted on international relations.  While your essay may include relevant internal events, its overall focus must be on international relations.

Provide suitable references and bibliographies.  Keep in mind any comments or suggestions made on your outlines. Th
e essay is worth 25% of your overall grade.


Essays must be based on a minimum of six sources (not including course text book but seminar readings are acceptable), and should not include, encyclopedias, textbooks, or general or popular histories, or unapproved websites, (2 marks deducted for every Wikipedia or like citation) etc.


Academic journal articles are highly recommended as sources for anyone seeking to earn an essay mark above a B- grade.  If you have never searched for academic articles, hundreds of thousands of which are available for you to download for free from the Ryerson Library website, start with instructions on my website “How to find and download seminar articles” (http://www.petervronsky.com/HST603/how_to_journals_online.htm)  You will need to learn how to use this service for downloading course seminar articles anyway.  Check on the Ryerson library website for further information on how to search journal databases (there are many different databases) or go in and ask a librarian for help.


Essays not conforming to any one or more of these above standards will either have marks deducted or not be accepted and late penalties imposed until resubmitted in the required format.


Paragraphs are to be indented without any additional spaces between paragraphs, unlike in this course outline, for example.  Any relevant images, maps, graphs included in the essay are to be placed into an appendix at the back. 

The essay should have a single descriptive title or a creative title with a descriptive subtitle.  For example:  Generals in Blue:  Lives of the Union Commanders or The Architect of Genocide:  Himmler and the Final Solution or Voices from S-21: Terror and History in Pol Pot’s Secret Prison,etc.   “History Essay” is not a title.  Marks will be deducted for essays submitted without a title and/or title page. 


Any paper not conforming to the above standards will be penalized.


Reference Citations (read carefully)


A history essay is like a courtroom argument—it is based on the presentation of proof conforming with the rules of evidence in an expositive argument.  The way hearsay is not admissible in court, Wikipedia for example, is likewise not admissible as evidence in historical discourse.  Just as court evidence is presented in a disciplined system: Exhibit A, Exhibit B, Exhibit C, etc, in the written historical argument, the Chicago Style footnoted citation is used to lead and guide the reader through the evidence backing the persuasive discourse of the text above it.


Why Chicago Style Footnotes? http://www.yale.edu/bass/writing/sources/kinds/principles/why.html 


Some of the journal readings for seminars will have been pointed out to you as appropriate models for the citation style required for your essay.


Essays must have a bibliography and have footnoted citations in the Chicago style (at the bottom of the page).  Parenthetic in-text or inline style citations (APA for example) are not unacceptable for a history essay.   A well researched essay integrating multiple sources into its argument contains on average five to six citations per page -- approximately 50 to 70 citations per essay.


As a general rule, references should be given for direct quotations, summaries or your own paraphrases of other people’s work or points of view, and for material that is factual, statistical, controversial, assertive or obscure.  You must cite more than just direct quotes.  WHEN IN DOUBT, IT IS BETTER TO PROVIDE A REFERENCE.  You do not need to cite items of general knowledge like, for example:  water is wet, fire is hot, the sun rises in the east or Elizabeth II is the Queen of England.  


Essays submitted without specific page references in each citation will be automatically failed without any further opportunity to resubmit. 


Basically, the first citation of a source should have the full bibliographical data in it, while in subsequent references to that source, just the name of the author and page number(s) will suffice.  (If more than one source by the same author is used, then include the title as well.) This is an example of the basic required style for citations which are to inserted at the bottom of each page:
1 Jane Doe, The ABC's of History (Toronto: Ontario Publishers, 1997), pp. 20-21
Jane Doe, p. 43


To create numerically sequential footnotes in MS WORD 2007 go to the “References” ribbon and select [Insert Footnote]; in earlier version of MS WORD, go to the “Insert” menu and then select [Footnote].  The citations should be formatted to “Arabic numerals (1,2,3, etc.)”


It is not necessary to use archaic citation terms like ibid or op cit. and they are even discouraged as word processing drag or cut-and-paste editing can easily displace the logic of these citation terms as you edit your work.


Titles of books are to be put into italics or underlined. Journal article titles are put in “quotation marks” while the journal titles are in italics or underlined.   See the below webpages for further details and formats as to how to cite journals, multiple authors, collections, etc. or search “Chicago style footnotes” on Google.






Essays MUST provide alphabetically ordered by author’s surname, bibliographies of all works consulted, whether or not they have been quoted directly in the citations. An adequate bibliography for this assignment will contain no less than six books or journal articles related to the topic.  General books, dictionaries, atlases, textbooks and/or encyclopedias DO NOT count towards this minimum number of sources, and their inclusion in citations will NOT be considered as constituting research.  Seminar readings are acceptable as citable sources.

An example of a bibliographic entry is as follows:

Smith, John.  History of Canada  (Toronto: Ontario Publishers, 1997).


Submission of Essays


Essays are to be submitted to the instructor on the due date in lecture in hardcopy with pages stapled together.


Electronic Submission of Assignments


If you find it necessary to submit an essay by e-mail, the following file naming protocol is to be used:

"Last Name_First Name_CourseNumber
_SectionNumber _Proposal [or essay, etc]"

Any attached file not using this exact naming protocol will not be accepted
and late penalties will continue to accrue until submitted in the required format.

Only MS Word files (preferred) in .doc or .docx format or PDF files will be accepted. 

The submission of files by e-mail will be usually acknowledged within two days.


A hard copy of the essay is to be submitted at the next opportunity.  Indicate on the front of the hardcopy the date you had e-mailed the essay to me previously.  The e-mailed essay will secure your submission date.  Obviously the hard copy is to be exactly identical with the e-mailed copy.  Hard copies of previously e-mailed essays not indicating the e-mail date on the cover will be assigned the date of the submission of the hard copy with no appeal.


Hardcopy Submission of Essays  


Do not slip essays under my door or into my mail-box.  Hard copies may be submitted to the Essay Drop-Off Box in the History Department (JOR500). Do not leave essays at the Chang School. 


I will guarantee essay returns with comments by the day of the exam only to those essays submitted to me on the due date, in hard copy, in required format, in lecture.  All other essays will be marked after the exam and arrangements may be made to get your essay mark after the final marks have been submitted.


Late Penalties and Extensions


Extensions may be granted on medical or compassionate grounds but will be automatically penalized three (3) marks regardless. Students requesting an extension should submit an e-mailed request to me before the deadline specifying precisely the date to which they are requesting the extension.  After the due date, students need to provide appropriate documentation relating to the extension request (i.e. doctor’s note, death certificate of relative, police report on their stolen laptop, repair bills for their crashed hard disc, veterinary reports on the contents of Fluffy’s stomach, etc).  Essays submitted under an extension must have my written response to the extension request attached to the front of the essay.  E-mailed submissions are to be attached as a ‘reply’ to my earlier response to the extension request.  Submissions without my extension approval attached to their front will be penalized as late with no opportunity of appeal afterward. No late work will be accepted after the last day of lecture or extensions granted beyond the last lecture day.  


Two (2) marks per/day are deducted from your essay mark for late submissions, weekends included, until the day the essay is submitted to me.  If I do not acknowledge the receipt of your e-mailed essay within a few days, it is your responsibility to ensure I have received it.  Keep copies of all work, including marked assignments returned to you and e-mails of your submissions until your final course mark is released.  Re-submissions of earlier e-mailed essays “lost” in transmission, should such an unlikely scenario occur, will only be accepted in the form of a forwarded copy of the original e-mail.  There are no exceptions to this. 

No late assignments will be accepted after the last day of lecture.

Only those essays submitted on the due date, in hardcopy, in lecture, will be guaranteed a return with comments, if any, by the day of the final exam.


Earning Marks


The evaluation of your research, content, evidence, originality and argumentation is of primary concern in marking as is the quality of your sources as described above. Equally important is the syntax, style and structure of your work. Marks will be deducted from work containing excessive grammatical/spelling mistakes, typographical errors, from essays that are excessively long or inadequately short, or which fail  to provide properly formatted footnoting/bibliography as specified above. Essays that consist of a frequently quoted passages or sentences, even if footnoted, will be severely penalized.  Be selective in direct quotations.  Ask yourself, “can this be said in my own words and then cited?” Is there a stylistic or argumentative reason for quoting the source directly? Be sure to edit and check your work carefully. Do not simply rely on your computer’s spelling or grammar checker.


Grounds for Assignment Failure


Essays which do not supply proper and adequate references and bibliographies as specified above or submitted after the final day of lecture will be failed.  Essays based entirely on websites without the instructor’s permission, will be failed.  Any written work that quotes directly from other material without attribution, or which paraphrases extensive tracts from the works of others without citations, is plagiarized and will be failed with no opportunity to re-submit and will result in additional severe academic consequences. Please consult the Ryerson academic calendar for further information on plagiarism. If you have any questions or doubts about how to cite material, please feel free to contact me.


NEWEssay Progressive Creation History File Requirements

As I do not use Turnitin, students must "save as" a minimum of ten different progressive versions of their essay as they research, write, and edit their work and save all their research notes as well.  I recommend that you use the "save as" command every time you finish a new page and for every subsequent edit of your finished essay.  If there is any doubt to the authorship of any submitted essay, you will be asked to submit all the copies of your essay files as you saved them through the research, writing, and editing phases. Failure to submit upon request the minimum number of progressive files will constitute evidence of plagiarism with all its consequences.  DO NOT SUBMIT YOUR PROGRESSIVE CREATION FILE HISTORY UNLESS REQUESTED. 



Once you have picked a topic you must follow it for the rest of the term by keeping a log. A log is a record of events over a period of time.  Yours will cover the entire term. Whereas your essay covers the historical period from 1945 to roughly 2001, the log covers JUST the 12 weeks of the semester. This assignment is designed to achieve three primary goals for students:


1)      to develop your skills managing and producing information projects/reports 

2)      to develop your research skills

3)      to gain an understanding of what shapes contemporary international relations and how countries, people, and events are shaped by them


The log will include 12 “packages” or “collections” of media reports with brief one or two page weekly summary of their significance to your subject – 12 summaries, one for each week.  It will conclude with a 1500-word  “master summary” of the 12 week’s progress or conclusion of your topic – a sort of master update and wrap-up commentary, assessment, critical analysis or conclusion on the collective significance and meaning of all the weekly summaries you were completing as events were occurring.    


Begin your log by seeking out information on your topic from any number of media: newspapers, magazines, journals, TV, the web, radio etc. A starting list of sources for your search is attached to this outline. You are strongly encouraged to come up with more on your own, but should clear news sources other than those listed on the course bibliography with me first. You are also strongly encouraged to use your language skills: if you have a facility in another language, you can use sources in that language. Just remember – provide accurate translations and be objective.


Your entries should include major developments relevant to your topic. You can use clippings, photocopies, printouts, or your own summaries of stories/events. The design and layout of your log is entirely up to you. However, you must make sure to fully reference your sources for each entry. You must also include a comprehensive list of all sources used.


The absolute minimum number of entries for your log is three per week. However, given the incredible access to information at your disposal, you are STRONGLY ENCOURAGED to do more: there is no set maximum, but it is not unreasonable to expect between 5-10 weekly entries for some topics.  


The key is QUALITY. What you choose to collect every week depends of course on your topic. However, it also depends on your choice of RESEARCH and your own ANALYSIS of what’s important to international relations. For example, there is no shortage of information on Iraq today. Logically, if you were covering this topic, your entries would reflect the difficult process of reconstructing Iraq after the war. You would also cover the American occupation and the problems it faces in Iraq, at home, and internationally. The challenge would be in deciding which of the many stories and developments are most important. On the other hand, some countries like Norway or Paraguay may not be in the news much. Your task would then be focused on finding good sources for information on the country, and then deciding what is most important for Norwegians right now. In all cases the principal factor will be RESEARCH. . Be varied and be critical of your sources: think about where they get the information, if they have any obvious biases or factors affecting their interpretations, and if they have particular political agendas or objectives. News on North Korea from Kim Jong Il’s fan club is NOT critical research. Conversely, taking everything from one or two good sources, like BBC, is also NOT critical research.  Balance of sources is the key. Your log should be well detailed, and include any commentary you consider worthwhile. However, try to avoid overly subjective commentary. Be objective and scholarly.


You will be graded on the breadth and variety of your sources, their relevance to your topic, your analysis of the data and evidence you collected, and the quality and organization of your presentation of your log. 


Your log must conclude with a final master summary of approximately 1500 words. You only need to provide references for direct quotations in the log or summary. The summary should provide an assessment of the main developments in your topic since you first started collecting material at the beginning of the semester. DO NOT simply provide week-by-week synopses of your stories for your master summary.


Presentation Format and Style


Style and presentation are up to you, but naturally will reflect upon your work. In past years students have varied widely in their submissions. Some assemble binders with maps, chronologies, indexes, and other information. Others prefer the more business-like report.  Please note that while I have no particular expectation regarding the format you choose, well-organized and well-presented logs tend to do better. Many students include the stories clipped from newspapers or printed off the web. Others will include only the by-line with their own analysis accompanying it. Either way is fine. The key is to make it professional – and make it your own. You may submit either hard copy logs or ones on disk, memory stick, blog, or your own website.  


It may be useful to approach this assignment as a business or professional proposition. Imagine that you, as a consultant, have been asked by a government ministry, an intelligence agency or a mysterious multinational corporation – to develop a contemporary (i.e. 12 week) analysis or risk assessment of a country or topic/issue. You don’t need to know fully why - just to present an accurate and hopefully exhaustive summary of contemporary developments pertinent to that subject. Whereas your essay is an historical analysis of that subject, the log is exclusively contemporary. The two halves will make up your “report” to your client.


Please note that ALL parts of the assignment must be completed before a full grade will be given. You MUST do both the essay and the log – no partial marks will be given if one of the parts is not completed.




Essay and Log topics must focus on international relations and not on internal issues.  Any internal issues covered in the essay or topic must have a direct impact on international relations.


1.  Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belorussia, Brazil, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Columbia, Czechoslovakia (for the log, Czech Republic or Slovakia), Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Libya, Malaysia, Mexico, Nepal, Netherlands, Nigeria, North Korea, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Somalia, South Africa, South Korea, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Sudan, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zimbabwe or any other nation other than the United States, Russia, China and Canada.


Describe and assess the most significant features of that country (i.e. political, social, economic). What are the most important things to understand about its history, especially but not exclusively since 1945?  What has shaped its relations with other countries and what are the main components of those relations?




2.  An issue or  organization:  the drug trade, international human smuggling, an ongoing border dispute, slavery, genocide, Group of Seven/Eight summits, global warming, the European Union (Economic Community (EEC)), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), nuclear arms control, international terrorism, maritime development and the Law of the Sea, international war crimes tribunals, or international human rights issues.


Trace the main developments related to your topic since 1945 and explain why it has become an issue or trouble spot.  What outside forces have played a part and how has it affected the world? What are the significant academic arguments surrounding your topic? What do major scholarly sources say about it? Give a critical assessment of whatever you choose to study. This is an academic exercise: you are NOT being asked to “pick a side” and argue it or prove some theory.



Other Topics


You are strongly encouraged to develop a topic of your own choosing. However, you must receive permission from me before undertaking the assignment. This is to ensure that the topic is feasible, and that appropriate resources are available to you.  Please note that the United States, People’s Republic of China, the Soviet Union (Russia) and Canada will not be sanctioned as topics given their centrality, if not dominance, in your course.  (But specific issue topics related to those countries are acceptable, for example START negotiations.) Please also note that any assignment on a topic that has not been approved will receive a grade of zero, without any chance of re-submission. 


Possible Problems:  In rare cases, you may not be able to find an item for each week for your story; in that case please provide a list of sources consulted.  If I find that you have made a reasonable search among possible sources, you will not be penalised. You may find that your story develops in different directions from those outlined in the first article.  Be prepared to follow the different threads in your story.  WARNING: Do not clip library material for these logs.


Guidelines for All Assignments 


Assume that you have been asked by someone who does not know a great deal about your topic to explain why a particular problem exists, or what are the most important things to know about a particular issue or country.  Ask yourself what the current situation is.  Is there a crisis?  If so, what does it consist of and why is it occurring?  If, for example, someone asks you for a briefing on why Kosovo is such a troubled area, what sort of information and analysis would you need to provide? To give a good answer, you must not only explain the main issues and/or questions involved at present but the reasons why things have unfolded as they have.  That means explaining the historical background.  In some cases you will need to go back before 1945. In all cases you must explore developments since 1945.  Depending on the story you have chosen, you may or may not need to provide statistics of such things as population or economic indicators.  You will need to consult books and/or articles, and the names of all works consulted must appear in a bibliography.  The report must provide proper references (see below).


Finding Material


1.  Consult the bibliography in the textbook.

2.  Look for a recent work on your topic and consult its bibliography.

3.  Use the Library On-Line Catalogue to search by subject.

4.  Follow directions on the Library Home Page to search databases for articles or books.

5.  Search the Internet WARNING: web sources are not generally scholarly: be careful. 

6.  Search other library catalogues (i.e. university libraries, public libraries, Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library). Remember that both the Ryerson and public libraries can order books for you through inter-library loan.


Finding reputable, factual sources is part of the exercise, and it will greatly enhance your work.  Be exhaustive and be critical.  You are certainly encouraged to use your facility in any language while doing research, provided that you indicate any translations (including by you) and use them with the same rules regarding academic honesty discussed above. 




Daily Newspapers

Financial Times (Britain)

Guardian (Britain)

National Post (Canada)

Globe and Mail (Canada)

International Herald Tribune (France)

LeLe Monde (France)

Der Spiegel (Germanyst1:place>)

New York Times (United States)

Wall Street Journal (United States)

Washington Post (United States)


Weekly Newspapers

Guardian Weekly (Britain, France, United States)

New York Sunday Times (United States)

The Observer (Britain)

Sunday Times (Britain)


News Magazines and Journals

Commentary (United States)

Economist (Britain)

Far Eastern Economic Review (Hong Kong)

Foreign Affairs (United States)

International Affairs (Britain)

International Journal (Canada)

Le Monde Diplomatique (France)

New Republic (United States)

New York Review of Books (United States)

Newsweek (United States)

Spectator (Britain)

Survival (Britain)

Time (United States)


Radio and Television Programmes

Al Jazeera

BBC Newshour

BBC World Service News (short-wave radio or CJRT-FM)


Prime Time News (CBC-TV)

News Hour (PBS)

Newsjournal (CJRT-FM)

Sunday Morning (CBC-Radio)span>

The World at Six (CBC-Radio)

Frontline (PBS)

Washington Week in Review (PBS)

World news on CBC, ABC, NBC, CBS


Just a Few Good Web sites

CNN: www.allpolitics.com/1998/index.html

Cold War History Project: http://cwihp.si.edu

Cuban Missile Crisis: hthttp://hyperion/advanced.org/11046

Financial Post: href="http://www.ft.com/">wwwww.ft.com

H-Diplo: http://h-net2.msu.edu/~diplo/

History Database: www.directnet.com/history

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod

Arts and Letters Daily: www.cybereditions.com/aldaily

JournalismNet: www.journalismnet.com

www.tamu-commerce.edu/coas/history/[includes bibliographies and links]

www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/20th.htmspan> [historical documents]


Academic Integrity


For additional help, Ryerson now offers the Academic Integrity Website at www.ryerson.ca/academicintegrity. This offers students a variety of resources to assist in their research, writing, and presentation of all kinds of assignments. It also details all dimensions of Academic Misconduct and how to avoid it. It was put together by a team representing the Vice President Academic, faculty, the library, Digital Media Projects, and Student Services.


NOTE: Every effort will be made to manage the course as stated. However, adjustments may be necessary at the discretion of the instructor. If so, students will be advised and alterations discussed in the class prior to implementation.




Exemption or deferral of a term test or final examination is not permitted except for a medical or personal emergency. The instructor must be notified by e-mail prior to the test and appropriate documentation submitted. For absence on medical grounds an official student medical certificate must be provided. This may be downloaded from the Ryerson website at www.ryerson.ca/rr or picked up from The Chang School Office, Room JOR100.


Absence from mid-term examination or tests:


§  Instructor must be notified by e-mail before the test

§  Documentation must be presented at the next class

§  Depending on course policy, the instructor may arrange a makeup or re-weigh the course requirements


Absence from final exam:


§  Instructor must be notified by e-mail before the examination.

§  Documentation must be presented at The Chang School Office, Room JOR100, within three working days.

§  If the majority of the course work has been completed with a passing performance, and the documentation is acceptable, an INC grade will be entered by the instructor. An INC grade will not be granted if term work was missed or failed.

§  The final examination must be written within four months after the submission of the incomplete grade. Failure to do this will result in an F grade.

§  It is the student’s responsibility to contact The Chang School Office at least two weeks prior to the end of the following academic term to arrange to write the final exam.




Academic Council GPA policy prevents students from taking a course more than three times.  For complete GPA policy see Policy #46 at http://www.ryerson.ca/acadcouncil/policies.html.